Simulation Movies


Massive star formation with hybrid radiative transfer, from turbulent (left) and laminar (right) initial conditions. From:

An Unstable Truth: How Massive Stars Get Their Mass, Rosen, A. L., Krumholz, M. R., McKee, C. F., & Klein, R. I. 2016, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 463, 2553, NASA ADS

Direct download: turbulent core (8.8 MB, mp4 format), laminar core (4.3 MB, mp4 format)



Gas in a Milky Way-like galaxy, projected (left) and volume-rendered (right), from:

Mass Transport and Turbulence in Gravitationally-Unstable Disk Galaxies. II: The Effects of Star Formation Feedback, Goldbaum, N. J., Krumholz, M. R., & Forbes, J. C. 2016, The Astrophysical Journal, 535, 523, NASA ADS

Direct download: projected (16 MB, m4v format), volume-rendered (460 MB, mp4 format)



Chemical mixing in star cluster formation, from:

Early turbulent mixing as the origin of chemical homogeneity in open star clusters, Feng, Y., & Krumholz, M. R. 2014, Nature, 513, 523, NASA ADS

Direct download: edge-on view (mov format, 16.6 MB), face-on view (mov format, 10.4 MB)



Radiation Rayleigh-Taylor instability, from:

Direct Numerical Simulation of Radiation Pressure-Driven Turbulence and Winds in Star Clusters and Galactic Disks, Krumholz, M. R., & Thompson, T. A. 2012, The Astrophysical Journal, 760, 155, NASA ADS

Direct download (mp4 format, 3.4 MB)



Formation of a massive star cluster, gas column density (left) and mass-weighted mean temperature (right), from:

Radiation-Hydrodynamic Simulations of the Formation of Orion-Like Star Clusters II. The Initial Mass Function from Winds, Turbulence, and Radiation, Krumholz, M. R., Klein, R. I., & McKee, C. F. 2012, The Astrophysical Journal, 754, 71, NASA ADS

Direct downlaod (mov format, 650 kB)





Density fields and magnetic field lines for expanding HII regions, for a variety of magnetized and non-magnetized cases, cloud geometries, and magnetic field geometries. From:

Evolution of Blister-Type HII Regions in a Magnetized Medium, Gendelev, L., & Krumholz, M. R. 2012, The Astrophysical Journal, 745, 158, NASA ADS

Direct download:

Formation of a massive star cluster by global collapse, from:

Radiation-Hydrodynamic Simulations of the Formation of Orion-Like Star Clusters I. Implications for the Origin of the Initial Mass Function, Krumholz, M. R., Klein, R. I., & McKee, C. F. 2011, The Astrophysical Journal, 740, 74, NASA ADS

Direct download (1.2 MB, mov format)


Formation of a massive star with radiation pressure feedback; left = face-on view, right = edge-on review, top = long view, bottom = zoom view. From:

The Formation of Massive Star Systems by Accretion (supporting online material), Krumholz, M. R., Klein, R. I., McKee, C. F., Offner, S. S. R., & Cunningham, A. J. 2009, Science, 323, 754, NASA ADS

Direct download (3.6 MB, mp4 format)


Expansion of a magnetized HII region, from:

Magnetohydronamic Evolution of HII Regions in Molecular Clouds: Simulation Methodology, Tests, and Uniform Media, Krumholz, M. R., Stone, J. M., & Gardiner, T. A. 2007, The Astrophysical Journal, 671, 518, NASA ADS

Direct download (mpg format, 10 MB)


Simulated ALMA observation of a massive protostellar disk in the CH3CN 220.7472 GHz line, from:

Molecular Line Emission from Massive Protostellar Disks: Predictions for ALMA and the EVLA, Krumholz, M. R., Klein, R. I., & McKee, C. F. 2007, The Astrophysical Journal, 665, 478, NASA ADS

Direct download (mpg format, 900 kB)


Formation of a massive protostellar system with radiation-hydrodynamics, from:

Radiation-Hydrodynamic Simulations of Collapse and Fragmentation in Massive Protostellar Cores, Krumholz, M. R., Klein, R. I., & McKee, C. F. 2007, The Astrophysical Journal, 656, 959, NASA ADS

Direct download (mp4 format, 6.2 MB)


Bondi-Hoyle accretion in a turbulent medium, from:

Bondi-Hoyle Accretion in a Turbulent Medium, Krumholz, M. R., McKee, C. F., & Klein, R. I. 2006, The Astrophysical Journal, 638, 369, NASA ADS

Direct download (mpg format, 7.7 MB)